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Conversely, officials in some Muslim minority countries try to prevent Sharia law from influencing state law or practice. Some have banned behaviors promoted under Sharia law, such as wearing the veil for women or ritual slaughter to make meat halal. The ban on the wearing of the veil or headscarf exists, for example, in France, where secularism is part of the national identity and where ostentatious religious symbols are prohibited in certain public spaces. Proponents of such laws say they promote women`s empowerment and social harmony, while critics say they ignore individual freedoms and unfairly target Muslims. Local qadis (Sharia judges) are responsible for matters of personal status and family law. [238] These laws are based on the unfounded claim that American Muslims are trying to replace the Constitution with Sharia law; The legislation prohibits courts from using “foreign law”.â The original model of these laws did not specify “foreign” law in general, but “Sharia”; The wording was revised when an Oklahoma law that used the latter term was declared unconstitutional; but as proponents have made clear, the goal of such laws remains “Sharia.” Muammar Gaddafi merged the civil courts and the Sharia courts in 1973. Civil courts now employ Sharia judges who sit on ordinary courts of appeal and specialize in Sharia appeals. [50] Civil status laws are derived from Sharia law. [51] Article 2 of Egypt`s 2014 Constitution states that the principles of Islamic Sharia are the main source of legislation. [38] Egypt`s legal and enforcement system has been changing since its 2011 revolution; [39] However, the declaration of the primacy of Sharia law in Article 2 is a potential reason for the unconstitutionality of all secular laws of the Egyptian legal code. [40] Sharia courts and qadis are operated and licensed by the Ministry of Justice.

[41] The Civil Status Act, which regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and custody, is subject to Sharia law. In a family court, a woman`s testimony is worth half that of a man. [42] In the United States, various states have banned Sharia law or adopted some form of electoral measure prohibiting state courts from considering foreign, international, or religious law in their decisions. In 2014, these included Alabama, Arizona, Kansas, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Dakota and Tennessee. [93] In this system, which is shared by a small minority of modern countries, classical Sharia is formally equated with national law and provides much of its substance. The state has a ruler who acts as the supreme judiciary and can pronounce and amend laws in certain legal areas, but traditional religious scholars (ulema) play a crucial role in the interpretation of Sharia law. The classic Sharia system is exemplified by Saudi Arabia and some other Gulf states. Iran shares many of the same characteristics, but also has characteristics of mixed legal systems, such as a parliament and codified laws. [22] The Prophet Muhammad is considered the most pious of all believers, and his actions have become a model for all Muslims. The process of interpreting Sharia, known as fiqh, developed over hundreds of years after his death in the seventh century and as the Islamic empire of Mecca and Medina, where he lived and died, expanded outward into present-day Saudi Arabia. [24] Jihad.

Many non-Muslims assume that this word, which means “to strive,” refers only to an armed struggle of Muslim extremists against non-Muslims. However, as a principle of Sharia law, it refers to the effort to achieve a moral goal, which could be, for example, an armed struggle against injustice, the desire to improve oneself morally, or the pursuit of knowledge. Religious tolerance. Some critics say that Muslim-led states that follow Sharia law are particularly intolerant of infidels or those who practice other religions. Researchers say this intolerance is largely due to premodern restrictions applied to non-Muslim minorities in Muslim countries supported by certain hadiths later introduced into the Muslim canon recommending the death penalty for Muslims who commit apostasy.